MERV and RESISTANCE
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A bad fit between your air filter and your air conditioning system leads to reduced performance and poor efficiency. Your duct system and air handler were designed to move a certain volume of air using a specific filter. Since builders strive to keep costs low, the duct system and air handler are usually made undersized, or just large enough. Consequently, to meet the air volume requirement, a filter with a lower MERV rating is more often than not, designed into the system.
This does not mean a filter with a higher MERV cannot be used, but air filters with higher efficiency ratings have more resistance than filters with lower ratings. So keep this in mind, this situation reduces airflow and thus, the overall efficiency of your air conditioning system.
It is easy to imagine an air filter with a higher MERV rating is going to improve the quality of the air in your home substantially, but this is not always the case. This is because the additional particulates captured by the higher MERV filter are extremely tiny and less likely to cause you breathing issues than larger particles